A disease that can rapidly develop mainly due to the abnormal multiplication of the cells within the body is considered cancer. Due to many reasons that include genetic mutations, habits, and lifestyle that includes smoking and drinking, infections that are viral in nature, obesity, and chronic inflammation can develop significantly. Irrespective of the gender here, along with age, cancer can duly affect anyone. However, among women from around the globe, there are a few cancers that are quite prevalent.
What is the most common type of cancer in females?
Today, we are going to discuss in regards to cancers of the varied kind that are present in women today and also look into the screening and their diagnosis as follows:
When the cells are divided out of control, destroying the body tissues is when this kind of cancer happens. Gynecological cancer happens when it originates in the reproductive organs. The field of practice and study dealing with the tumors present in the genital tract of a female is gynaecologic oncology.
There are several symptoms associated with gynecological cancers, each cancer type associated with specific symptoms, and the best way to detect the right kind is to get the proper consultation done.
- Abnormal Vaginal Discharge
- Pelvic pressure & pain
- Abdominal or Back pain
- Changes in bathroom habits
- Biophysical Methods
- Hormone therapy
Cervical cancer is the other kind of gynecological cancer leading to the increased fatality among women from around the globe. Each year, a massive number of women are being diagnosed with this kind of cancer due to the lack of cancer screening and awareness where the women face this issue when it has reached its advanced stage. HPV infection is also the reason behind the massive number of cervical cancers that are caused here.
- Vaginal discharge.
- Vaginal odor.
- Bleeding after sexual intimacy.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
- HPV test.
- Pap test
- Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)
- Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
- Radical trachelectomy
The other common gynecological cancer is ovarian cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer, stromal cell cancer, and germ cell cancer are the three common types of this kind of cancer. Ovarian cancers account for more amount of women who are facing this kind of sickness.
- Sudden onset of bloating.
- Difficulty in consumption of food and loss in appetite.
- Unexplained weight loss
- Increased frequency of urination.
- Pain and discomfort in the pelvic or abdominal region
- Transvaginal Ultrasound
- Serum CA-125 in Combination with Transvaginal Ultrasound
- Surgery Radiation Therapy
- Hormone Therapy
- Targeted Therapy
Cancer with the onset at the uterus is considered one of the commonest kinds of gynecological cancers here. There are a few factors that increase the risk of uterine cancer, including diabetes, obesity, hypertension with the use of estrogen without any progesterone, and else.
- Vaginal bleeding or spotting
- Pain in the lower abdomen that stays for more than two weeks.
- It is bleeding between periods.
- Pain during sexual intimacy.
In most of the cases here, this cancer is generally diagnosed in its early stages, having being treated through laparoscopic surgery here. You need to stay in the hospital for about 2-3 days in most of the cases here. Screening may also include the form of radiotherapy, including the combination of chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy.
- Radiation Therapy
- Hormone Therapy
- Targeted Therapy
Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer
If you consider it one of the rarest forms of gynecological cancer, then vaginal cancer is the one to be considered as it duly affects women who are over 50 years of age, and in most cases, they would be suffering from HPV infections. The following are the symptoms that are included here:
- Presence of an obvious mass.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding as well as discharge.
- Pain during and after sexual intimacy.
For inspecting the abnormalities indicating this kind of cancer, your physicians may conduct a PAP test and a pelvic exam. The doctor would also be conducting another kind of procedure for determining whether you have this kind of cancer or not on the basis of the findings.
You are making the use of a magnifying instrument for inspecting the vagina. Colposcopy involves the examination of the vagina with a magnifying instrument that is known as a colposcope, allowing your physician to magnify the surface of your vagina to check out for any regions of abnormal cells here.
Removal of the sample from the vaginal tissue that is used for testing. The process of removing the sample of tissues that is suspicious to test for the cells of cancer is known as a biopsy. During the process of colposcopy examination, a biopsy tissue might be taken by your physician. To get the testing done, your doctor would be sending the sample of the tissue to that of the laboratory.
Treatment plan :
- Radiation therapy
The rarest form of gynecological cancer that is affecting the external female genitalia is considered vulvar cancer. The following are the symptoms of discovering it:
- Red, pink, or white bumps.
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating.
- Bleeding is not associated with menstruation.
- Presence of white and rough patches in the region.
- A persistent open sore or ulcer.
It is considered as the most curable kind of cancer wherein many cases radical surgery is required for treating this kind of cancer while a few of the others may need radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
The term that is being used for a group of tumors related to pregnancy is a gestational trophoblastic disease. They are also subdivided into five kinds here as the tumors here are extremely rare. In the cells that would become placenta during the times of pregnancy, these mainly start within the cell. It can help surround the embryo, and it’s extremely benign is where these start. They are mainly treated under the process of chemotherapy and are extremely durable.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding during pregnancy
- A uterus is becoming larger than expected at a given point during pregnancy.
- Severe nausea or vomiting
- High blood pressure
- Pain or pressure in the pelvic area
- Abdominal swelling
- Anxiety or irritability
- Sleep deprives
- Unexplained weight loss
- CA-125 blood test
- Serum tumor marker test
- This would need the use of sound waves for creating the picture of things happening to your body, as this can be done in two comprised ways, both internally and externally, while testing out for the GTD. The smaller instrument that is being placed over the belly with an internal ultrasound making use of a smaller instrument being placed in the vagina itself is what it can use here.
- Urinalysis: It is a test performed for the examination of the levels of a few of the substances present in the urine.
- Dilation and curettage
Primary Peritoneal Cancer
When the cells present in the area of the body are growing in the most abnormal manner, the main cancer is relatively the rarest one developing in the commonest form among women. The closest relative of ovarian cancer becoming the common type of developing malignancy affecting the ovaries here. It is highly vital for women to know that it is possible to have the main cancer cells even with the ovaries removed here being the main cause of the primary peritoneal cancer.
- Abdominal bloating
- Changes in bowel habits
- Early feeling of fullness after eating
- Bloating and when severe, nausea and vomiting may result
Other than cervical cancer, there is no standard or routine screening tests that are available in terms of gynecological cancers.
The following are the tests that can help identify the persistent issues here:
The pelvic exam: This is the test when the physician generally is feeling the shape, size, and position of the ovaries along with the uterus.
Transvaginal ultrasound (TVU): This generally examines the uterus, vagina, as well as bladder by making a smaller incision of the probe or the ultrasound transducer into that of the vagina. The probe here can help in making the echoes bouncing off the higher energy sound waves of that of the internal tissues as well as the organs. It is generally noted as being the sonogram here for the echo form of the picture of the body here.
CA-125: To help measuring the levels of the CA-125 is a kind of test that would be measuring the level of it present in the blood. Into the bloodstream, CA-125 is considered as the substance that is being released to that of the bloodstream. The specific types of cancer that would be including the ovarian, as well as the other conditions here, are the specific signs involved here.
Treatment plan :
- Surgery with HIPEC
- Targeted therapy
- Radiation therapy
Cancer that is generally formed in the cells of the breasts is considered to be breast cancer.
It is the commonest kind of cancer that is diagnosed in women after that of skin cancer. It can take place in both men and women, but in women, it is considered quite a common affair.
It has significantly assisted in creating greater advances within the sector to diagnose and treat breast cancer in terms of the substantial support for this disease here. The number of deaths that are significantly diagnosed is decreasing steadily since the survival rates for this disease have increased significantly. There are several factors that are included here, such as the early detection, personalized approach to the treatment, and a sound understanding of the disease condition here.
- A breast lump or thickening
- Changes in the size, as well as the appearance of a breast
- Changes to the skin lying over the breast, such as dimpling
- A new inverted nipple occurrence
- Peels, scales, crusts as well as flakes of the pigmented area of skin that surrounds the nipple
- Redness or pitting of the skin or the skin turning orange
- Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- There are many ways in which the issue of breast cancer is being treated, and it significantly depends on the type of cancer prevailing over you and the reach to which it is spread. There is more than a single kind of treatment in terms of people who are suffering from breast cancer.
- Surgery. The cancer tissues are being cut with the help of the operation.
- Chemotherapy. The cancer cells are shrunk as well as killed with the use of specialized medicines.
- Hormonal therapy. It can help block the cancer cells from getting the need for the hormones that are required for growth.
- Biological therapy. It can help fight the cancer cells for controlling the side effects from the other kind of treatment for cancer as it can work at the immune system of your body well.
- Radiation therapy. The cancer cells are thereby killed with the use of high-energy rays that are pretty similar to that of the X rays.
If cancer is diagnosed in the most effective ways in its earlier stages, then it can be cured pretty easily. Screening of the other kinds of cancer needs to be done on a periodic basis while most of the cancers are detected earlier on. Women should be looking into any changes in the color, size, lumps, as well as the masses of their genital organs and their breasts. If you are noticing any kind of changes, then it should be reported to your general physician in the most immediate nature as it can help increase the chances of survival for the cancer patients along with bringing about an improvement to their quality of life.